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The Government of Lao PDR has conducted four population and housing censuses (PHCs) since 1985. The last PHC was conducted in March 2015. Census results have provided key statistics on the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the Lao population. These statistics have proven essential for monitoring, evaluating, assessing and developing national social-economic development plans, national population and development policies, and managing population issues. The country is preparing for the next census to continue tracking population changes and updating information on the progress towards implementing the 9th five-year NSEDP 2021-2025, formulation of the five-year NSEDP 2026-2030 and the SDG 2030. The Fifth Lao Population and Housing Census is planned for March 2025, with census moment scheduled at midnight on the night of 1st to 2nd March 2025. Although this may seem like a long time in the future, it is not. A population and housing census is the Government's largest and most complex peacetime operation, requiring long and meticulously planned preparation. As such, the Lao Statistics Bureau (LSB), the Ministry of Planning and Investment, in close collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), has started preparing for the next census.

The organizational structure of the census comprises three administrative levels: 1) the National Steering Committee will be in charge of all aspects of the organization of the census at the national level, 2) the Provincial Steering Committee coordinates census activities at the provincial level and comprises work units such as administrative, finance, planning, monitoring and advocacy and research-analysis and dissemination, 3) the District Steering Committee is responsible for census activities at the district level and has work units related to administration, finance, planning and monitoring.